List of Christian evangelist scandals

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This is a list of scandals related mostly to American Christian evangelists. (Roman Catholic clergy and high-profile leaders from New Religious Movements are not within the scope of this list.)



[edit] List of Christian evangelists involved in scandals

[edit] Aimee Semple McPherson, 1920s–40s

One of the most famous evangelist scandals involved Canadian-born Aimee Semple McPherson in the 1920s, who allegedly faked her own death. She later claimed that she had been kidnapped, but a grand jury could neither prove that a kidnapping occurred, nor that she had faked it. Roberta Semple Salter, her daughter from her first marriage, became estranged from Semple McPherson and successfully sued her mother's attorney for slander during the 1930s. As a result of this she was cut out of her mother's will. Aimee Semple McPherson died in 1944 from an accidental overdose of barbiturates.

[edit] Lonnie Frisbee, 1970s–1980s

Lonnie Frisbee was an American closeted gay Pentecostal evangelist and self-described "seeing prophet" in the late 1960s and 1970s who despite his "hippie" appearance had notable success as a minister and evangelist. Frisbee was a key figure in the Jesus Movement and was involved in the rise of two worldwide denominations (Calvary Chapel and the Vineyard Movement). Both churches later disowned him because of his active homosexuality, removing him first from leadership positions, then ultimately firing him. He eventually died from AIDS in 1993.

[edit] Marjoe Gortner, early 1970s

Gortner rose to fame in the late 1940s as a child preacher, but he had simply been trained to do this by his parents and he had no personal faith. He was able to perform "miracles" and received large amounts of money in donations. After suffering a crisis of conscience, he invited a film crew to accompany him on a final preaching tour. The resulting film, Marjoe, mixes footage of revival meetings with Gortner's explanations of how evangelists manipulate their audiences. It won the 1972 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature, but was never screened in the Southern United States due to fears that it would cause outrage in the Bible Belt.[1]

[edit] Billy James Hargis, early 1970s

Hargis was a prolific author and radio evangelist. Hargis formed American Christian College in 1971 in order to teach fundamentalist Christian principles. However, a sex scandal erupted at the College, involving claims that Hargis had had sex with male and female students. Hargis was forced out of American Christian College's presidency as a result. Further scandals erupted when members of Hargis' youth choir, the "All American Kids", accused Hargis of sexual misconduct as well. The college eventually closed down in the mid-1970s. Hargis denied the allegations publicly.

[edit] Jim & Tammy Bakker and Jimmy Swaggart, 1986 and 1991

In 1986, evangelist Jimmy Swaggart began on-screen attacks against fellow televangelists Marvin Gorman and Jim Bakker. He uncovered Gorman's affair with a member of Gorman's congregation, and also helped expose Bakker's infidelity (which was arranged by a colleague while on an out-of-state trip).[2] These exposures received widespread media coverage. Gorman retaliated in kind by hiring a private investigator to uncover Swaggart's own adulterous indiscretions with a prostitute.[3] Swaggart was subsequently forced to step down from his pulpit for a year and made a tearful televised apology in February 1988 to his congregation, saying "I have sinned against you, my Lord, and I would ask that your precious blood would wash and cleanse every stain until it is in the seas of God's forgiveness."[4][5]

Swaggart was caught again by California police three years later in 1991 with another prostitute, Rosemary Garcia, who was riding with him in his car when he was stopped for driving on the wrong side of the road. When asked why she was with Swaggart, she replied, "He asked me for sex. I mean, that's why he stopped me. That's what I do. I'm a prostitute."[6]

[edit] Peter Popoff, 1987

A self-proclaimed prophet and faith healer in the 1980s, Popoff's ministry went bankrupt in 1987 after magician and skeptic James Randi and Steve Shaw debunked his methods by showing that instead of receiving information about audience members from supernatural sources, he received it through an in-ear receiver.[7]

[edit] Morris Cerullo, 1990s

A number of incidents involving California-based televangelist Morris Cerullo caused outrage in the United Kingdom during the 1990s. Cerullo's claims of faith healing were the focus of particular concern. At a London crusade in 1992, he pronounced a child cancer sufferer to be healed, yet the girl died two months later. Multiple complaints were upheld against satellite television channels transmitting Cerullo's claims of faith-healing, and a panel of doctors concluded that Cerullo's claims of miraculous healing powers could not be substantiated. Cerullo also produced fund-raising material, which was condemned as unethical by a number of religious leaders, as it implied that giving money to his organisation would result in family members becoming Christians.[8]

[edit] Mike Warnke, 1991

Warnke was a popular Christian evangelist and comedian during the 1970s and 1980s. He claimed in his autobiography, The Satan Seller (1973), that he had once been deeply involved in a Satanic cult and was a Satanic priest before converting to Christianity. In 1991, Cornerstone magazine launched an investigation into Warnke's life and testimony. It investigated Warnke's life, from interviews with over one hundred personal friends and acquaintances, to his ministry's tax receipts. Its investigation turned up damaging evidence of fraud and deceit. The investigation also revealed the unflattering circumstances surrounding Warnke's multiple marriages, affairs, and divorces. Most critically, however, the investigation showed how Warnke could not possibly have done the many things he claimed to have done throughout his nine-month tenure as a Satanist, much less become a drug-addicted dealer or become a Satanic high priest.

[edit] Robert Tilton, 1991

Tilton is an American televangelist who achieved notoriety in the 1980s and early 1990s through his paid television program Success-N-Life. At its peak, it aired in all 235 American TV markets. In 1991, Diane Sawyer and ABC News conducted an investigation of Tilton. The investigation, broadcast on ABC's Primetime Live on November 21, 1991, found that Tilton's ministry threw away prayer requests without reading them, keeping only the money or valuables sent to them by viewers, garnering his ministry an estimated $80 million USD a year. In the original investigation, one of Tilton's former prayer hotline operators claimed that the ministry cared little for desperate followers who called for prayer, saying that Tilton had a computer installed in July 1989 to make sure that the phone operators were off the line in seven minutes. Tilton sued ABC for libel in 1992, but the case was dismissed in 1993, and Tilton's show was off the air by October 30, 1993.

[edit] W. V. Grant, 1996 and 2003

Like Peter Popoff, Grant was investigated by James Randi regarding his faith healing claims. He was then imprisoned for tax evasion in 1996. After restarting his ministry upon release, a TV investigation found that claims of healing he made at a 2003 revival in Atlanta were false.

[edit] Bob Moorehead, 1998

Moorehead, pastor of the Overlake Christian Church from the 1970s to June, 1998 was arrested in July, 1996 on a charge of indecent exposure in a public restroom in Daytona Beach, Florida. He stepped down amid allegations of molestation of adult members during baptism and wedding ceremonies that went as far back as 20 years earlier. [9]

[edit] Roy Clements, 1999

Clements was a prominent figure within British evangelical christianity. In 1999, he revealed he was in a homosexual relationship with another man, resigned his pastorship, and separated from his wife. He had written a number of well-received books which were withdrawn from sale when the news broke.[10]

[edit] John Paulk, 2000

John Paulk (no relation to Earl Paulk) is a former leader of Focus on the Family's Love Won Out conference and former chairman of the board for Exodus International North America. His claimed shedding of homosexuality is also the subject of his autobiography Not Afraid to Change. In September 2000, Paulk was found and photographed in a Washington, D.C. gay bar, and accused by opponents of flirting with male patrons at the bar. Later questioned by gay rights activist Wayne Besen, Paulk denied being in the bar despite photographic proof to the contrary. Initially, FoF's Dr. James Dobson sided with Paulk and supported his claims. Subsequently, Paulk, who himself had written about his habit of lying while he openly lived as a homosexual, confessed to being in the bar, but claimed he entered the establishment for reasons other than sexual pursuits. Paulk retained his Board seat for Exodus, however he did so while on probation. Paulk did not run again for chairman of the board of Exodus when his term expired.

[edit] Paul Crouch, 2004

Paul Crouch is the founder and president of the Trinity Broadcasting Network, or TBN, the world's largest evangelical Christian television network, as well as the former host of TBN's flagship variety show, Praise the Lord. In September 2004, the Los Angeles Times published a series of articles raising questions about the fundraising practices and financial transparency of TBN, as well as the allegations of a former ministry employee, Enoch Lonnie Ford, that he had a homosexual affair with Crouch during the 1990s. TBN denied the allegations, claiming that Ford's claims were part of an extortion scheme and that the Times was a "left-wing and anti-Christian newspaper." In 2005, Ford appeared at the taping of the ION Television show Lie Detector. The show's Producers decided not to air the show, and the outcome of the lie detector test was never released. Consequently, none of the alleged charges were substantiated. It appeared that Ford was out to protect himself and try to take someone out with him. Obviously, Times claims are yet to be substantiated as well.

[edit] Douglas Goodman, 2004

Douglas Goodman, an evangelical preacher, and his wife Erica were pastors of Victory Christian Centre in London, England. The church was one of the largest in the United Kingdom. He came into notoriety when he was jailed for three and a half years for the sexual assault of four members of his congregation in 2004. VCC was closed by the Charity Commission, but his wife Erica started a new church, Victory to Victory, in Wembley. Douglas has upon his release resumed full pastoral ministry alongside his wife.[11][12][13][14][15]

[edit] Nathan Braun, 2005

In April 2005, Christian vegetarian author and evangelist Nathan Braun was ejected and banned from the Grassroots Animal Rights Conference, based on allegations of sexual assault by a female teenaged conference attendee. Organizers explained their decisions in a statement.[16]

Pattrice Jones, a conference speaker and member of the committee formed to respond to the incident, wrote an article discussing the matter for the Mabon 2005 (Vol. 25 # 6) issue of the Earth First! Journal [17]

[edit] Kent Hovind, 2006

Kent Hovind is an American Baptist minister and Young Earth creationist. He is most famous for "creation science" seminars, in which he argues for Young Earth creationism, using his self-formulated "Hovind Theory." He has been criticized by both the mainstream scientific community and other creationists. In 2006, Hovind who also has a reputation as a tax protestor had been charged with falsely declaring bankruptcy, making threats against federal officials, filing false complaints, failing to get necessary building permits, and various tax-related charges. He was convicted of 58 federal tax offenses and related charges, for which he is currently serving a ten-year sentence.[18]

[edit] Ted Haggard, 2006

Ted Haggard was the pastor of the New Life Church in Colorado Springs, Colorado and was the president of the National Association of Evangelicals (NAE) from 2003 until November 2006. Haggard's position allowed him occasional access to President George W. Bush. In 2006 it was alleged that Haggard had been regularly visiting a male prostitute who also provided him with methamphetamine. Haggard admitted his wrongdoing and resigned as pastor of New Life church and as president of the NAE. The high-profile case was significant also because it immediately preceded the 2006 mid-term elections and may have even affected national voting patterns[citation needed]. In January 2009, Haggard admitted to a second homosexual relationship with a male church member on CNN-TV and other national media, and when asked, would not directly answer a question about his other possible homosexual relationships.[19] Ted Haggard has recently started a new church.,ref." [3]"

[edit] Paul Barnes, 2006

Paul Barnes is the founder and former senior minister of the evangelical church Grace Chapel in Douglas County, Colorado. He confessed his homosexual activity to the church board, and his resignation was accepted on December 7, 2006.[20] He started the church in his basement and watched it reach a membership of 2,100 in his 28 years of leadership. This scandal was notable because it was similar to Ted Haggard's (above), it occurred in the same state (Colorado) and around the same time (late 2006).

[edit] Lonnie Latham, 2006

In 2006, Latham, the senior pastor of South Tulsa Baptist Church and a member of the powerful Southern Baptist Convention Executive Committee, was arrested for "offering to engage in an act of lewdness" with a male undercover police officer.[21]

[edit] Gilbert Deya, 2006

Kenyan-born Deya moved to the United Kingdom in the 1990s and started a number of churches. He claims to have supernatural powers that allow him to make infertile women become pregnant and give birth. However, police investigations in the UK and Kenya concluded that Deya and his wife were stealing Kenyan babies. Deya was arrested in London during December 2006 and as of April 2010 he is currently fighting extradition to Kenya.[22]

[edit] Richard Roberts, 2007

In October 2007, televangelist Richard Roberts (son of the late televangelist Oral Roberts), was president of Oral Roberts University until his forced resignation on November 23, 2007. Roberts was named as a defendant in a lawsuit alleging improper use of university funds for political and personal purposes and improper use of university resources.[23]

[edit] Earl Paulk, 2007

Earl Paulk (no relation to John Paulk) was the founder and head pastor of Chapel Hill Harvester Church in Decatur, Georgia from 1960 until the 1990s. A number of women from the congregation came forward during the 1990s claiming that Paulk had sexual relations with them. Some of these claims have subsequently been proven correct. Moreover, Donnie Earl Paulk, the current senior pastor of the church and nephew of Earl Paulk, had a court-ordered DNA test in 2007 which showed that he was Earl's son, not his nephew, which means that Earl and his sister-in-law had had a sexual relationship which led to Donnie's birth.[24]

[edit] Coy Privette, 2007

Privette is a Baptist pastor, conservative activist, and politician in the U.S. state of North Carolina. Privette was president of the Christian Action League and a prominent figure in North Carolina moral battles. In 2007, Privette resigned as president of North Carolina's Christian Action League and from the Board of Directors of the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, following revelations on July 19 that he had been charged with six counts of aiding and abetting prostitution.[25]

[edit] Thomas Wesley Weeks, III, 2007

Weeks married fellow evangelist Juanita Bynum in 2002, but they separated in May 2007. In August 2007, Weeks physically assaulted Bynum in a hotel parking lot and was convicted of the crime in March 2008. The couple divorced in June 2008 and Weeks remarried in October 2009.[26]

[edit] Michael Reid, 2008

Bishop Michael Reid (born 1944) is a Christian evangelist in Essex, England and founder of Michael Reid Ministries who resigned from the role of pastor at Peniel Church in April 2008, after admitting to an eight-year extra-marital sexual relationship. The scandal was widely reported online[27][28][29] and in UK newspapers.[30][31] He has since re-developed an itinerant evangelistic ministry and has been speaking at a number of churches in the UK and overseas.

[edit] Joe Barron, 2008

Joe Barron, one of the 40 ministers at Prestonwood Baptist Church, one of the largest churches in the United States with 26,000 members, was arrested on May 15, 2008 for solicitation of a minor after driving from the Dallas area to Bryan, Texas, in order to allegedly engage in sexual relations with what he thought to be a 13 year-old girl he had met online. The "girl" turned out to be an undercover law enforcement official.[32][33][34]

[edit] Todd Bentley, 2008

Canadian Todd Bentley rose to prominence as the evangelist at the Lakeland Revival in Florida, which began in April 2008. Bentley claimed that tens of thousands of people were healed at the revival. However, in August 2008, he stepped down permanently when it was revealed he was separating from his wife, Shonnah, and was in a relationship with Jessa Hasbrook, a member of his staff.[35]

[edit] George Alan Rekers, 2010

Penn Bullock and Brandon K. Thorp of the Miami New Times reported on May 4, 2010, that on April 13, 2010, Christian leader George Alan Rekers was encountered and photographed at Miami International Airport returning from an extended overseas trip with a twenty-year-old "rent boy", or gay male prostitute, known as "Lucien" (later identified as Jo-Vanni Roman). Given his opinion on homosexuals and homosexual behavior, the scandal surrounds Rekers' decision to employ a homosexual escort as a traveling companion, and how that runs contrary to Rekers' public stances on such issues.

Rekers claimed that Lucien was there to help carry Rekers' luggage as Rekers had allegedly had recent surgery, yet Rekers was seen carrying his own luggage when he and Lucien were spotted at the airport.[36] On his blog, Rekers denied having sex with the man.[37] In subsequent interviews, Roman said Rekers had paid him to provide nude massages daily, which included genital touching.

[edit] Eddie L. Long, 2010

In September 2010 several civil complaints were filed against Eddie L. Long by men that stated Mr. Long used his position as the church leader to entice or coerce the men into consensual sexual relationships in exchange for money, travel and goods. At a press event on September 26, 2010 Mr. Long stated he would fight the civil complaints in court and would not comment on the allegations. On December 7th Eddie Long opted to settle out of court which raised questions if this was an admission of some guilt[38]

[edit] Vaughn Reeves, 2010

Special Judge Dena Martin ordered former pastor Vaughn Reeves to serve consecutive six-year terms for each of nine fraud counts, in a scheme that cost about 2,900 investors $13.1 million.[39] Among aggravating factors, Martin found Reeves targeted people over age 65 and used religion to influence them. Reeves’ attorney plans to appeal.

Investigators said Reeves and his three sons used their now-defunct company, Alanar, to trick about 11,000 investors into buying bonds worth $120 million secured by mortgages on church construction projects.[40]

Instead, Reeves and his sons diverted money from new investments to pay off previous investors, pocketing $6 million and buying luxuries.[40]

[edit] Marcus Lamb 2010[citation needed]

Rev. Marcus Lamb, who created DayStar Television Network with his wife Joni, said on his show, “Celebration,” that he and his wife survived an inappropriate affair that he had in the past, and they had already healed their marriage, the AP said.

However, they were now talking about it publicly because three blackmailers were asking for $7.5 million. The Lambs also displayed a message that they posted on the Daystar Television Network website about the affair, according to CNN.

The announcement was made at the start of the program. Marcus said, “Ladies and gentlemen, we’re not going to take God’s money and pay to keep from being humiliated,” according to The Dallas Morning News.

Marcus Lamb took full responsibility saying, “Joni has no blame, the other person doesn’t have any blame…I don’t even blame the devil. It’s all on me,” The Dallas Morning News reported.

The Dallas Morning News said Joni Lamb discovered the affair “several years ago.” Fred Kendall, one of their marriage counselors said, “He had one inappropriate period of misbehavior, with one person, and it wasn’t a man. It wasn’t a transvestite. It was with a woman.”

Lamb said, “We’re not here to excuse sin, but we are here to celebrate the goodness and the grace of God,” Gather News reported. The couple went through counseling at Life Languages Institute.

Lamb also confessed of the indiscretion to Joni’s parents and asked some members of DayStar ministry to help hold him accountable to stay faithful, Gather News reported.

Joni Lamb said the Lord told her that her husband was “worth fighting for,” and added, “This is not a secret story that we’ve been hiding—rather, a private matter, from which we have been healing,” The Dallas Morning News reported.

The Lambs were approached by the blackmailers in recent weeks, CNN said. A. Larry Ross of Daystar told The Dallas Morning News that authorities have already been notified.

[edit] Stephen Green, 2011[citation needed]

STEPHEN Green, 60, tireless campaigner for a more moral, less gay UK, has been exposed as a cruel, delusional wife and childbeater by his former spouse, Caroline Green. Stephen Green creator in 1994 of Christian Voice, as well as a newly launched blog, Christian VoiceUK – often punished his ex-wife for failing to be a dutiful and compliant wife.

Caroline revealed that Green wrote a list of her ­failings then described the weapon he would make to beat her with.

He told me he’d make a piece of wood into a sort of witch’s broom and hit me with it, which he did.He hit me until I bled. I was terrified. I can still remember the pain.

She added:

Stephen listed my misdemeanours: I was disrespectful and disobedient; I wasn’t loving or submissive enough and I was undermining him. He also said I wasn’t giving him his ­conjugal rights.

He even framed our marriage vows — he always put particular emphasis on my promise to obey him — and hung them over our bed. He believed there was no such thing as marital rape and for years I’d been reluctant to have sex with him, but he said it was my duty and was angry if I refused him. But the beating was the last straw. It ­convinced me I had to divorce him.

And during the time he was terrorising his wife and their four children, he was also revelling in his self-appointed public role as guardian of the nation’s morality.

He routinely inveighs against the abolition of the death penalty, no-fault divorce, Islam, abortion and, his particular bête noir, homosexuality. Violent crime and rape, he laments on his website, have risen dramatically in the past 50 years, while he points out that “virtue is derided”.

When Caroline, 59, contemplates the disparity between his public pronouncements and his private persona, she is sickened.

Whenever I watch him on TV spouting verses from the Bible, or see him quoted in a news­paper, it turns my stomach. I’ve decided to tell the truth about him now because the people who support him financially and morally should know what he is really like

[edit] Senate probe

In 2007, Senator Chuck Grassley (R-IA) opened a probe into the finances of six televangelists who preach a "prosperity gospel".[41] The probe investigated reports of lavish lifestyles by televangelists including: fleets of Rolls Royces, palatial mansions, private jets and other expensive items purportedly paid for by television viewers who donate due to the ministries' encouragement of offerings. The six that were investigated are:

On January 6, 2011 Senator Grassley released his review of the six ministries response to his inquiry. He called for a further congressional review of tax-exemption laws for religious groups.[43]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ References for this section can be found in the main article on Marjoe Gortner and the film Marjoe.
  2. ^ "Transcript: Interview with Jessica Hahn". Larry King Live (CNN). 2005-07-14. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  3. ^ Swaggart Is Barred From Pulpit for One Year. New York Times. 1998-03-30. Retrieved 2008-04-17 
  4. ^ King, Wayne (1998-02-22). Swaggart Says He Has Sinned; Will Step Down. New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-17 
  5. ^ Swaggart, Jimmy. "Reverend Jimmy Swaggart: Apology Sermon". Retrieved 2007-01-25. 
  6. ^ "Swaggart Plans to Step Down". The New York Times. 1991-10-15. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  7. ^ Randi, James (1989). The Faith Healers. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-535-0 page 141. 
  8. ^ References for this section can be found in the main article on Morris Cerullo
  9. ^ "Sex Allegations: Megachurch Pastor Quits, Denies Wrongdoing". Retrieved 2010-09-26. 
  10. ^ References for this section can be found in the main article on Roy Clements
  11. ^ "Scandal in the second biggest Pentecostal church in Britain". Retrieved 2009-12-21. 
  12. ^ "Disgraced Dougles Goodman out of prison and back into the pulpit. Is this right?". Retrieved 2009-12-21. 
  13. ^ "Downfall of a preacher man". BBC News. 2004-05-06. Retrieved 2009-12-21. 
  14. ^ "Scandal in the church". Retrieved 2009-12-21. 
  15. ^ "Fall from grace". Retrieved 2009-12-21. 
  16. ^ "GARC'S Response to sexual assault". Grassroots Animal Rights Conference. June 4, 2005. Archived from the original on 2006-12-24. Retrieved 2007-01-14. 
  17. ^ "Violation & Liberation: Grassroots Animal Rights Activists Take on Sexual Assault". Earth First! Journal. September 1, 2005. Retrieved 2007-03-28. 
  18. ^ Hovind v. Commissioner, T.C. Memo 2006-143, CCH Dec. 56,562(M) (2006).[1]
  19. ^ "Disgraced pastor Haggard admits second relationship with man", CNN-TV Larry King, January 29, 2009.
  20. ^ "Pastor of 2nd Colorado evangelical church resigns over gay sex allegations". Seattle Times. 2006-12-12. Retrieved 2006-12-16. 
  21. ^ Lonnie Latham scandal
  22. ^ References for this section can be found in the main article on Gilbert Deya
  23. ^ References for this section can be found in the main article on Richard Roberts
  24. ^ J. Lee Grady, It’s Time to Blow the Whistle on Corruption, Charisma Magazine, October 19, 2007
  25. ^ Moral activist Privette arrested
  26. ^ References for this section can be found in the main articles on Thomas Wesley Weeks, III and Juanita Bynum
  27. ^ BBC blog, accessed 11 April 2008
  28. ^ Talk To Action blog, accessed 11 April 2008
  30. ^ "Bash Bishop is a Jerry Sinner", The Sun, 9th April 2008
  31. ^ "Bishop who preached family values finally admits: I am an adulterer", The Daily Mail, 10th April 2008
  32. ^ Eiserer, Tanya, and Sam Hodges, Minister at Prestonwood Baptist charged in Internet sex sting, Dallas Morning News, retrieved 2008-05-17
  33. ^ Police say Texas minister caught in Internet sex sting, Fort Worth Star-Telegram, May 16, 2008, retrieved 2008-05-17
  34. ^ CNN. [dead link]
  35. ^ References for this section can be found in the main article on Todd Bentley
  36. ^ [2]Miami New Times, "Christian right leader George Rekers takes vacation with "rent boy"", May 4, 2010 issue
  38. ^ Pastor Takes Pulpit and Rejects Sex Claims
  39. ^ Trigg, Lisa (8 December 2010). "Vaughn Reeves sentenced for role in fraud". Tribune-Star. Retrieved 25 December 2010. 
  40. ^ a b "Ex-pastor going to prison for duping investors". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Associated Press. 7 December 2010. Retrieved 25 December 2010. 
  41. ^ "Grassley seeks information from six media-based ministries". 2007-11-06. Retrieved 2010-08-19.  (Archived by WebCite at
  42. ^ Sen. Grassley probes televangelists' finances
  43. ^
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